Risk Factors for Covid-19
Covid-19 is an acronym of coronavirus disease in 2019. Coronaviruses are an outsized family of viruses that are common throughout the planet. they will cause respiratory disease in people and animals. This particular one originated in China at the top of 2019 within the city of Wuhan. within the past 20 years, coronavirus outbreaks have caused global concern, including one in 2003 with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and more recently in 2012 with the center East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).
Covid-19 may be a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 which will trigger what doctors call a tract infection. It can affect the upper tract, sinuses, nose, and throat or lower tract, viz. windpipe, and lungs. Severe cases can cause serious respiratory illness and even pneumonia.
On January 30, 2020, the WHO declared the Covid-19 outbreak a worldwide health emergency. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared it a worldwide pandemic.
The following are the danger factors that are likely to predispose the people to Covid-19 infection
- Age 65 years and older
People, who are 65 years and older, are at a better risk of Covid-19 infection thanks to their decreased immunity. they’re more likely to possess some associated co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, chronic renal disorder, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Also, the course of disease tends to be more severe in them leading to higher mortality. However, its transmission among the elderly population is often reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures.
- Chronic lung disease and asthma
People with asthma are more likely to catch Covid-19. The hospital data shows that respiratory patients are more likely to experience severe complications. As there’s still no cure for it, the simplest action that folks can take is to guard themselves against infection. an equivalent is that the case with other chronic lung diseases.
- Serious heart conditions
Covid-19 causes direct damage to the lungs and triggers an inflammatory response, which places stress on the circulatory system in two ways, viz. by infecting the lungs the blood oxygen levels drop and therefore the inflammatory effects of the virus itself cause the vital sign to drop also. In such cases, the guts must beat faster and harder to provide oxygen to major organs.
According to the ECU Society of Cardiology, individuals with heart conditions like a coronary failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, advanced sorts of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and patients with a congenital cyanotic heart condition are at the very best risk.
- Severe obesity
There is an increasing number of reports that have linked obesity to more severe Covid-19 infection and death. Obesity reduces the protective cardio-respiratory reserves and weakens the immune regulation that appears likely to assist the progression to a critical stage of the disease.
Researchers found that among individuals with Covid-19 aged but 60 years in NY City, those with a BMI between 30-34 Kg/m2 and greater than 35 Kg/m2 were 1.8 times and three .6 times more likely to be admitted to critical care respectively than individuals with a BMI lesser than 30 Kg/m2.
A new study published in 2020 in Diabetes Care concluded that patients with Covid-19 are two and a half times more likely to possess severe pneumonia if they’re obese than if they’re not. Obesity brings with itself a chronic inflammatory state. Whether obesity is an independent risk factor for susceptibility to infection requires further research.
Diabetes may be a risk factor for hospitalization and mortality of the Covid-19 infection. Diabetics have impaired immune reaction to infection concerning cytokine profile and changes in immune-responses including T-cell and macrophage activation. Poor glycemic control impairs several aspects of the immune reaction to virus infection and also to the potential bacterial secondary infection within the lungs. Poor glycemic control may be a risk factor for Covid-19 infection and its adverse outcomes. Hence the importance of tight glycemic control in diabetics can’t be overlooked.
- Chronic renal disorder
People with the chronic renal disorder are at an increased risk of the infection. People on dialysis can have weaker immune systems, making it harder to fight infections. Nonetheless, the kidney patients got to continue with their regularly scheduled dialysis treatments and to require necessary precautions as recommended by their healthcare provider.
People with a kidney transplant got to take anti-rejection medicines, also referred to as immunosuppressive medicines, which keep the system less active.
- Liver disease
All patients with the disease are in danger of adverse outcomes from the virus. Also, some people with certain liver conditions are extremely vulnerable. They include people on immune-suppression for a liver transplant or for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and other people with cancer of the liver who are undergoing active chemotherapy.
- Immune-compromised people
A person of any age bracket can become immune-compromised. The conditions which will cause an individual to be immune-compromised include cancer treatment, smoking, bone marrow or organ transplantation, immune deficiencies, poorly controlled AIDS, and prolonged use of corticosteroids and other immune weakening medications.
There are reports that, in some Covid-19 patients, death has occurred probably thanks to a cytokine storm, when the system goes into overdrive, thereby damaging even healthy tissue which will cause multiple organ failure, sepsis, and even death.
Certain people are at high risk for a severe infection if they catch Covid-19. Everyone must take steps to guard themselves et al. from catching or spreading it. But people belonging to a high-risk category must take all the required precautions to guard themselves.